|South Africa Table of Contents
- South African of Dutch ancestry, often with German, French, or
other European forebears; member of white community tracing its
roots to the seventeenth-century Dutch settlers at the Cape of Good
- "Separateness," (Afrikaans, Dutch); policy implemented
by National Party government (1948-94) to maintain separate
development of government-demarcated racial groups; also referred to
as "separate development," and later "multinational
development"; abolished by Constitution of the Republic of
South Africa of 1993.
- Literally, "human beings," in more than 300 Bantu
languages of equatorial and southern Africa. Bantu languages are
classified within the central branch of the Niger-Congo language
family; characterized by a system of noun classes marked by
prefixes, so that each dependent word in a sentence carries a prefix
of the same class. Outsiders often simplify by omitting prefix; for
example, the amaZulu (people) are known as the Zulu; their language,
isiZulu, is also referred to as Zulu. Speakers of seSotho, the
BaSotho, are often referred to simply as Sotho peoples. Four major
subgroups of Bantu languages--Nguni, Sotho, Tsonga-Shangaan, and
Venda--are widely represented in South Africa. They include nine of
South Africa's official languages--isiXhosa, isiZulu, isiNdebele,
sePedi, seSotho, seTswana, siSwati, tshiVenda (also luVenda), and
xiTsonga. During the apartheid era, the term Bantu was
often used in government regulations, official statements, and
sometimes in conversation to designate people of black African
descent. Because this group was particularly disadvantaged by
apartheid, the term Bantu assumed pejorative connotations
in many apartheid-era contexts.
- An area reserved for an officially designated Bantu-speaking
ethnic group during the apartheid era; a term generally supplanted
by "homeland," national state, or self-governing state
during the 1970s and 1980s.
- Farmer (Afrikaans); generally used in eighteenth and nineteenth
century to refer to white South African settlers of Dutch, German,
and French Huguenot origin; generally supplanted by the term Afrikaner
(q.v.) in the twentieth century. See also
- Those "of mixed race," in apartheid terminology; usually
referred to people with African and Dutch ancestry.
- European Community (EC)
- See European Union (EU).
- European Union (EU)
- Formerly, the European Community (EC), established as the EU by
the Treaty on European Union, November 1, 1993. The EU comprises
three communities: the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), the
European Economic Community (EEC), and the European Atomic Energy
Community (Euratom). Each community is legally distinct, but since
1967 the three bodies have shared common governing institutions. The
EU forms more than a framework for free trade and economic
cooperation: EU signatories have agreed in principle to integrate
their economies and ultimately to form a political union. EU members
in early 1996 were Austria, Belgium, Britain, Denmark, Finland,
France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the
Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Sweden.
- fiscal year (FY)
- In South Africa, April 1-March 31. For example, FY 1997-98
includes the period from April 1, 1997, to March 31, 1998.
- gross domestic product (GDP)
- A measure of the total value of goods and services produced by a
domestic national economy during a given period, usually one year.
Obtained by adding the value contributed by each sector of the
economy in the form of profits, compensation to employees, and
depreciation (consumption of capital). Only domestic production is
included, not income arising from investments and possessions owned
abroad, hence the use of the word domestic to distinguish
GDP from the gross national product (GNP--q.v.). Real GDP
is the value of GDP when inflation has been taken into account.
- gross national product (GNP)
- The total market value of all final goods and services produced by
an economy during a year. Obtained by adding gross domestic product
(GDP--q.v.) and the income received from abroad by
residents and then subtracting payments remitted abroad to
nonresidents. Real GNP is the value of GNP when inflation has been
taken into account.
- High-altitude grassland, generally between 1,200 meters and 1,800
meters above sea level.
- homeland or reserve
- A primarily residential area set aside for a single officially
designated black ethnic group during the apartheid era. Some of the
ten homelands in the 1980s consisted of more than a dozen discrete
segments of land. Homeland boundaries shifted as the government
assigned additional groups of people to the often crowded homelands
or as neighboring jurisdictions successfully pressed claims to
territory within a homeland's boundary.
- import substitution
- An economic development strategy that emphasizes the growth of
domestic industries, often by import protection using tariff and
nontariff measures. Proponents favor the export of industrial goods
over primary products.
- International Monetary Fund (IMF)
- Established along with the World Bank (q.v.) in 1945, the
IMF is a specialized agency, affiliated with the United Nations,
that is responsible for stabilizing international exchange rates and
payments. The main business of the IMF is the provision of loans to
its members (including industrialized and developing countries) when
they experience balance of payments difficulties. These loans
frequently carry conditions that require substantial internal
economic adjustments by the recipients, most of which are developing
- A group, the members of which are descended through males from a
common male ancestor (patrilineage) or through females from a common
female ancestor (matrilineage). Such descent can in principle be
- "Crushing" or "hammering" (isiZulu); refers to
early nineteenth-century upheaval in southeastern Africa caused by
expansion of Zulu society under the military leadership of Shaka and
combined economic and population pressures throughout the region; difeqane,
- A semi-autonomous, quasi-governmental, state-owned enterprise.
- Paris Club
- Informal name for a consortium of Western creditor countries
(Belgium, Britain, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the
Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) that have
made loans, or have guaranteed export credits, to developing nations
and that meet in Paris to discuss borrowers' ability to repay debts.
Paris Club deliberations often result in the tendering of emergency
loans to countries in economic difficulty or in the rescheduling of
debts. Formed in October 1962, the organization has no formal or
institutional existence. Its secretariat is run by the French
treasury. It has a close relationship with the International
Monetary Fund (q.v.), to which all of its members except
Switzerland belong, as well as with the World Bank (q.v.),
and the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).
The Paris Club is also known as the Group of Ten (G-10).
- having more than one wife at the same time; polygynous marriages
are allowed by tradition in many African societies.
- rand (R)
- Unit of currency. A decimal currency of 100 cents, the rand
replaced the South African pound in 1961. The official exchange rate
of the rand against the United States dollar was R1=US$1.40 until
December 1971, and from September 1975 to January 1979, R1=US$1.15.
From 1972 to 1975, and after 1979, the government allowed market
forces to determine the value of the rand. The exchange rate
averaged R3.55=US$1 in 1994 and R3.64=US$1 in 1995. On April 30,
1996, R4.34=US$1; conversely, R1= US$.23. Financial rands were
issued only to foreign buyers for capital investment inside South
Africa. They were available periodically until 1983 and again in
September 1985, but were abolished in March 1995.
- Local contraction of Witwatersrand (q.v.).
- Migrant farmer, in Afrikaans; signifies participation in
nineteenth-century population migrations eastward from the Cape of
Good Hope. See also Boer.
- Literally, "Ridge of White Waters" (Afrikaans), often
shortened to Rand; mining region south of Johannesburg known
primarily for rich deposits of gold and other minerals.
- World Bank
- Informal name used to designate a group of four affiliated
international institutions that provide advice and assistance on
long-term finance and policy issues to developing countries: the
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the
International Development Association (IDA), the International
Finance Corporation (IFC), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee
Agency (MIGA). The IBRD, established in 1945, has as its primary
purpose the provision of loans at market-related rates of interest
to developing countries at more advanced stages of development. The
IDA, a legally separate loan fund administered by the staff of the
IBRD, was set up in 1960 to furnish credits to the poorest
developing countries on much easier terms than those of conventional
IBRD loans. The IFC, founded in 1956, supplements the activities of
the IBRD through loans and assistance designed specifically to
encourage the growth of productive private enterprises in the less
developed countries. The president and certain senior officers of
the IBRD hold the same positions in the IFC. The MIGA, which began
operating in June 1988, insures private foreign investment in
developing countries against such noncommercial risks as
expropriation, civil strife, and nonconvertibility of currency. The
four institutions are owned by the governments of the countries that
subscribe their capital. To participate in the World Bank, member
states must first belong to the International Monetary Fund (q.v.).
Source: U.S. Library of Congress