||Sultanate abolished (November 1).
||Treaty of Lausanne secured (July 24).
Republic of Turkey with capital at Ankara proclaimed (October
||Caliphate abolished (March 3).
Traditional religious schools closed, seriat abolished.
Constitution adopted (April 20).
||Dervish brotherhoods abolished.
Fez outlawed by the Hat Law (November 25). Veiling of women
discouraged; Western clothing for men and women encouraged.
Western (Gregorian) calendar adopted.
||New civil, commercial, and penal codes based on European
models adopted. New civil code ended Islamic polygamy and
divorce by renunciation and introduced civil marriage.
Millet system ended.
||First systematic census.
||New Turkish alphabet (modified Latin form) adopted. State
declared secular (April 10); constitutional provision
establishing Islam as official religion deleted.
||Islamic call to worship and public readings of the Kuran
(Quran) required to be in Turkish rather than Arabic.
||Women given the vote and the right to hold office.
Law of Surnames adopted--Mustafa Kemal given the name Kemal Atatürk
(Father Turk) by the Grand National Assembly; Ismet Pasha took
surname of Inönü.
||Sunday adopted as legal weekly holiday.
State role in managing economy written into the constitution.