|Turkey Table of Contents
Political Parties and Labor Organizations
- Anavatan Partisi (Motherland Party). Founded in May 1983 under the
leadership of Turgut Özal. The ruling party following the 1983
election, the center-right ANAP included mostly former members of
the pre-1980 AP (Adalet Partisi) (q.v.) .
- Adalet Partisi (Justice Party). Established in 1961, one of the
two major parties prior to the September 1980 coup, led by Süleyman
Demirel. Following its dissolution by the National Security Council,
many of its members subsequently joined the ANAP (q.v.) or
the DYP (q.v.)
- Birlik ve Baris (Unity and Peace).
- Splinter from RP (q.v.) in 1992.
- Büyük Türkiye Partisi (Grand Turkey Party). Founded in May 1983
and banned the same month for having connections with the dissolved
AP (q.v.). Its supporters then formed the center-right DYP
- Cumhuriyet Halk Partisi (Republican People's Party). Founded in
the 1920s and led by Atatürk until his death in 1938. Headed by Bülent
Ecevit in the 1970s, it was one of the major parties prior to the
1980 coup. A majority of its deputies ultimately regrouped in the
left-of-center SHP (q.v.); others joined the DSP (q.v.).
Party reactivated by Deniz Baykal in 1992. In 1995 the SHP dissolved
itself, and many members joined the CHP.
- Committee of National Unity. Composed of thirty-eight officers who
executed the May 1960 coup; the CNU governed the country until a
constituent assembly was formed in January 1961.
- Demokratik Partisi (Democratic Party)
- Formed in 1971 by former AP (q.v.) members who
disapproved of Süleyman Demirel's leadership; merged with the AP
shortly before the 1980 coup. Not a successor to the DP (q.v.).
- Demokrasi Partisi (Democracy Party). Pro-Kurd party formed in 1993
on demise of the HEP (q.v.), proscribed by Constitutional
Court in June 1994.
- Dev Sol
- Devrimçi Sol (Revolutionary Left Party). A radical movement
espousing Marxist ideology and advocating violent tactics against
- Türkiye Devrimçi Isçi Sendikalari Konfederasyonu (Confederation
of Revolutionary Workers' Trade Unions of Turkey). Federation of
trade unions second in importance only to Türk-Is (q.v.)
before 1980. Banned after 1980, DISK was less influential in the
mid-1990s than some of the other labor organizations.
- Demokrat Partisi (Democrat Party). Founded in 1946, the party
secured power in the 1950 election. It was overthrown and declared
illegal by the armed forces in 1960. Should not be confused with the
Demokratik Partisi (q.v.). Party reactivated in 1992.
- Demokratik Sol Partisi (Democratic Left Party). Founded in
November 1985 by Rahsan Ecevit, wife of former CHP (q.v.)
leader Bülent Ecevit, who had been banned from political activity.
The party advocated a more radical variety of democratic socialism
than the SHP (q.v.).
- Dogru Yol Partisi (True Path Party). Founded in June 1983 after
the dissolution of the BTP (q.v.). The center-right party
was considered to be the successor to the banned AP (q.v.).
Former AP leader Süleyman Demirel was its leader before becoming
president. Head in 1995 was Prime Minister Tansu Çiller.
- Halkin Demokrasi Partisi (People's Democracy Party). Formed in
June 1994 as pro-Kurd party.
- Türkiye Hak Isçi Sendikalari Konfederasyonu (Confederation of
Turkish Just Workers' Unions). Pro-Islamist union.
- Hür Demokrat Partisi (Free Democratic Party). A short-lived
right-wing party founded in 1983 by former members of the MDP (q.v.)
under the leadership of Mehmet Yazar. The HDP was disbanded the same
- Halkin Emek Partisi (People's Labor Party). Formed in late 1991 to
promote full equality of Kurds and Turks within Turkey. Outlawed in
- Halkçi Partisi (Populist Party). Founded in May 1983, it was one
of the three parties allowed to compete in the 1983 general
election. It merged with Sodep (q.v.) in November 1985 to
form the SHP (q.v.).
- Milliyetçi Çalisma Partisi (Nationalist Labor Party). Founded in
July 1983 and originally named the Conservative Party, it changed
its name in November 1985 to MÇP. The conservative nationalist
party is considered to be the successor to the MHP (q.v.).
In 1993 the party reassumed the name of the Nationalist Action Party
- Milliyetçi Demokrasi Partisi (Nationalist Democracy Party).
Founded in May 1983 under the leadership of General Turgut Sunalp,
the party never gained popular support and was dissolved in April
- Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi (Nationalist Action Party). A
militant, nationalist party led by Alparslan Türkes. It was
associated with the pre-1980 violence and was banned following the
coup. The MÇP (q.v.) was considered to be its successor
prior to changing its name to MHP in 1993.
- Türkiye Milliyetçi Isçi Sendikalari Konfederasyonu
(Confederation of Turkish Nationalist Workers' Unions).
Government-sponsored federation of labor unions.
- Milli Selamet Partisi (National Salvation Party). Founded in 1972
and dissolved in 1980, this conservative, religiously oriented party
served in various government coalitions prior to the 1980 coup. Many
of its members subsequently supported the RP (q.v.).
- Freedom and Labor Party. Splinter from SHP (q.v.) formed
- Partiya Karkere Kurdistan (Kurdistan Workers' Party). Founded in
late 1960s. Initiated armed insurrection on behalf of an independent
Kurdistan in 1984; fighting continued through 1995.
- Refah Partisi (Welfare Party; also seen as Prosperity Party). A
religious party based on Islamic principles; successor to the MSP (q.v.).
- Sosyal Demokrat Halkçi Parti (Social Democratic Populist Party).
Formed in November 1985 by the merger of two left-of-center parties,
Sodep (q.v.) and the HP (q.v.). Dissolved itself
in mid-1995, and many members joined the CHP (q.v.).
- Sosyal Demokrat Parti (Social Democratic Party). Founded in July
1983, it had the support of the moderate left that had backed the
pre-coup CHP (q.v.). Merged with the HP (q.v.) in
1985 to form the SHP (q.v.).
- Türkiye Isveren Sendikalari Konfederasyonu (Turkish Confederation
of Employers' Associations). A confederation of employers'
associations, concerned primarily with labor-management relations.
- Türkiye Odalar Birligi (Turkish Trade Association). Organization
that has represented the interests of merchants and industrialists
since the early 1950s. In later years, it has been identified
primarily with small and medium-sized firms.
- Türkiye Isçi Sendikalari Konfederasyonu (Confederation of
Turkish Trade Unions). The largest and most influential of the union
- Turkish Communist Party
- Joined TWP (q.v.) in 1987 to form Turkish United
- Türkiye Birlesik Komünist Partisi (Turkish United Communist
- Created in 1987 by merger of TWP and Turkish Communist Party.
Party was banned shortly thereafter, decriminalized in 1991, and
then again proscribed.
- Türk Sanayiçileri ve Is Adamlari Dernegi (Turkish
Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association). Organization that
represents the interests of big business.
- Turkish Workers' Party. Joined with Turkish Communist Party in
1987 to form the Türkiye Birlesik Komünist Partisi (q.v.).
- Vatandas Partisi (Citizens' Party). Founded in March 1986 under
the leadership of former ANAP (q.v.) member Vural Arikan. A
small center-right party, its two parliamentary deputies joined the
DYP (q.v.) in December 1986.
Source: U.S. Library of Congress