|Turkmenistan Table of Contents
Ahmed, Akbar, and David Hart, eds. Islam in Tribal Societies. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984.
Allworth, Edward, ed. Central Asia: 120 Years of Russian Rule. Durham: Duke University Press, 1989.
Anderson, John. "Authoritarian Political Development in Central Asia: The Case of Turkmenistan," Central Asian Survey [Abingdon, United Kingdom], 14, No. 4, 1995, 509-28.
Bacon, Elizabeth. Central Asians under Russian Rule: A Study in Culture Change. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1980.
Bartol'd, Vasilii Vladimirovich. "A History of the Turkman People (An Outline)." Pages 73-170 in Four Studies on the History of Central Asia III. Trans., V. and T. Minorsky. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1962.
Barylski, Robert V. "The Caucasus, Central Asia, and the Near-Abroad Syndrome," Central Asia Monitor, No. 4, 1993, 31.
Basilov, Vladimir Nikolayevich. "Honor Groups in Traditional Turkmenian Society." Pages 220-43 in Akbar Ahmed and David Hart, eds., Islam in Tribal Societies. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1984.
Basilov, Vladimir Nikolayevich. "Popular Islam in Central Asia and Kazakhstan," Journal of the Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, 8, No. 1, 1987, 7-17.
Batalden, Stephen K., and Sandra L. Batalden. The Newly Independent States of Eurasia: Handbook of Former Soviet Republics. Phoenix: Oryx, 1993.
Becker, Seymour. Russia's Protectorates in Central Asia: Bukhara and Khiva, 1865-1924. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968.
Bennigsen, Alexandre. Mystics and Commissars: Sufism in the Soviet Union. London: Hurst, 1985.
Bennigsen, Alexandre, and S. Enders Wimbush. Muslims of the Soviet Empire. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.
Berdi Murat, Aman. "Turkmenistan and the Turkmen." Pages 262-82 in Zev Katz, ed., Handbook of Major Soviet Nationalities. New York: Free Press, 1975.
Bregel, Yuriy. "The Peoples of Southern Turkmenistan and Khorasan in the 17th and 18th Centuries," Central Asian Review, 8, No. 3, 1960, 264-72.
Bregel, Yuriy. "Nomadic and Sedentary Elements among the Turkmens," Central Asiatic Journal, 25, Nos. 1-2, 1981, 5-37.
Canfield, Robert, ed. Turco-Persia in Historical Perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
Chalidze, F. "Aral Sea Crisis: A Legacy of Soviet Rule," Central Asia Monitor, 1992, No. 1, 30-34.
Clark, Susan L. "The Central Asian States: Defining Security Priorities and Developing Military Forces." Pages 177-206 in Michael Mandelbaum, ed., Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1994.
Commonwealth of Independent States. Statistical Committee. Strany-chleny Sodruzhestva nezavisimykh gosudarstv: Statisticheskiy yezhegodnik (The Member Nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States: A Statistical Yearbook). Moscow: Finansovyy inzhiniring, 1992.
Davis, Christopher M. "Health Care Crisis: The Former Soviet Union," RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 2, No. 40, October 8, 1993, 35-43.
Demidov, Sergey Mikhaylovich. Istoriya religioznykh verovaniy narodov Turkmenistana (A History of the Religious Faiths of Turkmenistan). Ashgabat: Ylym, 1990.
Durdyyev, Marat, and Shukhrat Kadyrov. Turkmeny mira (Turkmen of the World). Ashgabat: Kharp, 1991.
Dzhikiyev, Ata. Ocherki proiskhozhdeniya i formirovaniya turkmenskogo naroda v epokhu srednovekov'ya (Essays on the Origin and Formation of the Turkmen People in the Middle Ages). Ashgabat: Ylym, 1991.
Economist Intelligence Unit. Country Report: Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Central Asian Republics. London: 1994.
Ellis, C.H. The Transcaspian Episode, 1918-1919. London: Hutchinson, 1963.
Encyclopedia Iranica, 5. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda, 1990.
The Europa World Year Book 1993, 2. London: Europa, 1993.
The Europa World Year Book 1994, 2. London: Europa, 1994.
The Europa World Year Book 1995, 2. London: Europa, 1995.
The Europa World Year Book 1996, 2. London: Europa, 1996.
Farmayan, Hafez. "Turkoman Identity and Presence in Iran," Iran, 4, Summer 1981, 45-63.
Feldman, Walter. "Interpreting the Poetry of Makhtumquli." Pages 167-89 in Jo-Ann Gross, ed., Muslims in Central Asia: Expressions of Identity and Change. Durham: Duke University Press, 1992.
Feshbach, Murray, and Alfred Friendly, Jr. Ecocide in the USSR: Health and Nature under Siege. New York: Basic Books, 1992.
Friedman, L. "Ethnic and National Composition of Population in Newly Independent Countries of the Middle East and Caucasus," Central Asia Today, 1993, No. 1, 56-60.
Geldiyev, B., S.P. Tokarev, and T. Sakhatliyev. Razvitiye promyshlennosti Turkmenistana za 50 let (The Development of Industry in Turkmenistan over 50 Years). Ashgabat: Turkmenistan, 1974.
Gleason, Gregory. "Central Asia: Land Reform and the Ethnic Factor," RFE/RL Research Report [Munich], 2, No. 3, 1993, 28-33.
Gleason, Gregory. An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrasowitz, 1992.
Goetz, Roland, and Uwe Halbach. Informationen über eine unbekannte Republik, I-II. Berichte des Bundesinstituts für ostwissenschaftliche und internationale Studien. Cologne: 1995.
Howard, G. "The Caspian Oil and Gas Oasis: Turkmenistan," Russian Oil and Gas Guide, 3, No. 1, 1994, 54-58.
International Monetary Fund. Economic Review: Turkmenistan. Washington: 1992.
International Monetary Fund. Turkmenistan. Washington: 1994.
Irons, William. "The Turkmen of Iran: A Brief Research Report," Iranian Studies, 2, Winter 1969, 27-38.
Irons, William. The Yomut Turkmen: A Study of Social Organization among a Central Asian Turkic-Speaking Population. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1975.
Istoriya Turkmenskoy SSR (History of the Turkmen SSR). Ashgabat: Akademiya nauk Turkmenskoy SSR, 1957.
Jane's Sentinel Regional Security Assessment: Commonwealth of Independent States. Ed., Paul Beaver. Coulsdon, United Kingdom: Jane's Information Group, 1994.
Kaiser, Robert J. The Geography of Nationalism in Russia and the USSR. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994.
Katz, Zev, ed. Handbook of Major Soviet Nationalities. New York: Free Press, 1975.
Keller, S. "Islam in Soviet Central Asia, 1917-1930: Soviet Policy and the Struggle for Control," Central Asian Survey [Abingdon, United Kingdom], 11, No. 1, 1992, 25-50.
Khrushchev, Anatoliy Timofeyevich, and O.D. Chuvilkin. "Resursy gaza gosudarstv Tsentral'noy Azii: Ekonomiko-geograficheskiye aspekty" (Gas Resources of the States of Central Asia: Economic-Geographic Aspects), Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta: Geografiya [Moscow], 1994, No. 4, 51-57.
Kirpichenko, V. "Khozyaystvennyye svyazi stran-chlenov SNG" (Economic Relations of CIS Member States). Ekonomist [Moscow], 1993, No. 4, 53-62.
Krader, Lawrence. Peoples of Central Asia. Uralic and Altaic Series, No. 26. Bloomington: Indiana University, 1963.
Maksudov, Sergey. "On Infant Mortality in Turkmenistan," Central Asia Monitor, 1992, No. 1, 26-30.
Mandelbaum, Michael, ed. Central Asia and the World: Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkmenistan. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 1994.
Mesbahi, Mohiaddin, ed. Central Asia and the Caucasus after the Soviet Union: Domestic and International Dynamics. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994.
Micklin, Phillip P. The Water Management Crisis in Soviet Central Asia. The Carl Beck Papers in Russian and East European Studies, No. 905. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1992.
The Military Balance 1993-1994. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1993.
The Military Balance 1994-1995. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1994.
The Military Balance 1995-1996. London: International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1995.
Narody mira: Etnograficheskiye ocherki (Peoples of the World: Ethnographic Sketches). Moscow: Nauka, 1963.
Nichol, James, and Leah Titerence. "Turkmenistan: Basic Facts," CRS Report for Congress. Washington: Library of Conggress, Congressional Research Services, March 16, 1993.
1995 Britannica Book of the Year. Chicago: 1995.
Nissman, David B. "Iran and Soviet Islam: The Azerbaijan and Turkmen SSRs," Central Asia Survey [Abingdon, United Kingdom], 2, No. 4, 1983, 45-60.
PlanEcon. Review and Outlook for the Former Soviet Republics. Washington: 1995.
Plyshevskiy, B. "Ekonomicheskoye polozheniye gosudarstv SNG" (The Economic Situation of the CIS States), Ekonomist [Moscow], 1993, No. 4, 63-75.
Polyakov, Sergey Petrovich. Etnicheskaya istoriya severo-zapadnoy Turkmenii v sredniye veka (The Ethnic History of Northwest Turkmenia in the Middle Ages). Ashgabat: 1973.
Rashid, Ahmed. The Resurgence of Central Asia: Islam or Nationalism? Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey: Zed Books, 1994.
Saray, Mehmet. The Turkmens in the Age of Imperialism: A Study of the Turkmen People and Their Incorporation into the Russian Empire. Ankara: Turkish Historical Society, 1989.
Simon, Gerhard. Nationalism and Policy Toward the Nationalities in the Soviet Union. Trans., K. Forster and O. Forster. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1991.
Sizov, Andrey Yevgen'yevich. "Ekonomika Rossii i drugikh stran SNG v nachale 90-kh godov" (The Economy of Russia and the Other Countries of the CIS at the Beginning of the 1990s). Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnyye otnosheniya [Moscow], 1993, No. 7, 20-29.
The Statesman's Year-Book 1995-1996. Ed., Brian Hunter. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.
Subtelny, E. "The Cult of Holy Places: Religious Practices among Soviet Muslims," Middle East Journal, 43, No. 4, 1989, 593-604.
Turkmenenforschung (Research on the Turkmen), 1-15. Hamburg and Berlin: Reinhold Schletzer Verlag, 1979-93.
Tyson, David, and Larry Clark. Turkmen: Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in Turkmenistan. Washington: GPO, 1994.
United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Demographic Yearbook 1993. New York: 1995.
United States. Agency for International Development. Center for Health Information. USAID Health Profile: Turkmenistan. Arlington, Virginia: USAID, 1992.
United States. Bureau of International Narcotics Matters. International Narcotics Strategy Report March 1996. Washington: GPO, 1996.
United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Handbook of International Economic Statistics 1992. Washington: GPO, 1992.
United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Handbook of International Economic Statistics 1995. Washington: GPO, 1995.
United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Piecing Together Central Asia: A Look at Key Leaders. Washington: GPO, 1993.
United States. Central Intelligence Agency. Turkmenistan: An Economic Profile. Springfield, Virginia: National Technical Information Service, 1993.
United States. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook 1994. Washington: GPO, 1994.
United States. Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook 1995. Washington: GPO, 1995.
United States. Congress. Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe. Human Rights and Democratization in the Newly Independent States of the Former Soviet Union. Washington: GPO, 1993.
United States. Department of Agriculture. Economic Research Service. Former USSR: Agriculture and Trade Report 1991. Washington: GPO, 1992.
United States. Department of Agriculture. Economic Research Service. Former USSR: Agriculture and Trade Report 1992. Washington: GPO, 1993.
United States. Department of Commerce. Business Information Service for the Newly Independent States. Commercial Overview of Turkmenistan. Washington: 1993.
United States. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993. (Report submitted to United States Congress, 103d, 2d Session, House of Representatives, Committee on Foreign Affairs, and Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations.) Washington: GPO, 1994.
WEFA Group. Eurasia Economic Outlook, February 1996. Eddystone, Pennsylvania: 1996.
Wheeler, Geoffrey. The Modern History of Soviet Central Asia. New York: Praeger, 1964.
Wolfson, Zeev. "Central Asian Environment: A Dead End," Environmental Policy Review, 4, No. 1, January 1990, 29-46.
World Bank. Statistical Handbook 1995: States of the Former USSR. Washington: 1995.
World Bank. Turkmenistan. World Bank Country Study. Washington: 1994.
World Radio TV Handbook 1996. Ed., Andrew G. Sennitt. Amsterdam: Billboard, 1996.
Yekayev, Orazpolat. Turkmenistan i turkmeny v kontse XV-pervoy polovine XVI v (Turkmenistan and the Turkmen at the End of the Fifteenth-First Half of the Sixteenth Centuries). Ashgabat: Ylym, 1981.
(Various issues of the following periodicals also were used in the preparation of this chapter: Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report: Central Eurasia ; Jamestown Foundation, Monitor ; RFE/RL Research Report [Munich]; Transition ; and Washington Post .)
Source: U.S. Library of Congress