Eric Solsten, ed. Germany: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1995.


Early History
The Merovingian Dynasty 500-751
The Carolingian Dynasty, 752-911
The Saxon Dynasty, 919-1024
The Salian Dynasty, 1024-1125
The Hohenstaufen Dynasty, 1138-1254
The Empire under the Early Habsburgs
The Protestant Reformation
Martin Luther
Resistance to Lutheranism
The Peace of Augsburg
The Thirty Years' War, 1618-48
The Counter-Reformation and Religious Tensions
Military Campaigns
The Peace of Westphalia
The Age of Enlightened Absolutism, 1648-1789
Austria and Prussia
The Smaller States
The French Revolution and Germany
The German Confederation, 1815-66
Economic and Political Trends Toward Unification
The Revolutions of 1848
The Restoration
Bismarck and Unification
Imperial Germany
Political Parties
The Economy and Population Growth
The Tariff Agreement of 1879
Bismarck's Foreign Policy
Foreign Policy in the Wilhelmine Era
World War I
The Weimar Republic, 1918-33
The Weimar Constitution

Problems of Parliamentary Politics
The Stresemann Era
Hitler and the Rise of National Socialism
The Third Reich, 1933-45
The Consolidation of Power

Foreign Policy
The Outbreak of World War II
Total Mobilization, Resistance, and the Holocaust
1945 to 1990
Postwar Occupation and Division
The Establishment of Occupation Zones

The Nuremberg Trials
Political Parties and Democratization
The Bizone
The Federal Republic of Germany
The German Democratic Republic
Community of Nations
Rearmament and the European Defense Community
Social Market Economy
Ludwig Erhard and the Grand Coalition
The Ulbricht Era, 1949-71
Consolidation of the New State
Planned Economy
The Warsaw Pact and the National People's Army
The Berlin Wall
The "Socialist State of the German Nation"
The Social Democratic-Free Democratic Coalition, 1969-82
Willy Brandt
Helmut Schmidt
The Student Movement and Terrorism
The Greens
Christian Democratic/Christian Socialist-Free Democratic Coalition
The Honecker Era, 1971-89
Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe
The New East German Constitution
Relations Between the Two Germanys
The Peace Movement and Internal Resistance
The Last Days of East Germany
Opening of the Berlin Wall and Unification

North German Lowland
Central German Uplands
Southern Germany
Alpine Foreland and the Alps
The Environment

Historical Background
Age-Gender Distribution
Population Distribution and Urbanization
Ethnic Minorities
Women in Society
Marriage and Family
Postwar Christianity
Roman Catholicism
Free Churches
Orthodox Churches
Social Structure and Social Mobility
The Elite
The Self-Employed
Salaried Employees
Civil Servants
The Poor
Social Mobility
The Search for a New National Identity

Social Welfare, Health Care, and Education
Social Insurance and Welfare Programs
Provisions of the Social Welfare System
Social Insurance
Unemployment Insurance
Accident Insurance
Social Assistance
Other Social Benefits
National Health Insurance and Medical Care
Development of the Health Care System
Health Insurance
Health Care Providers
Remuneration of Health Care Providers
Educational Policy Making and Administration
Educational Finances
The Education System
Elementary and Primary Education
Junior Secondary Education
Senior Secondary Education
Vocational Education and Training
Tertiary or Higher Education
Education in the New Lšnder

The Economy
The Social Market Economy
The Economic Miracle and Beyond
Unification and Its Aftermath
Structural and Technological Questions
The Role of Government
Land and Local Governments
Government Subsidies
Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing
The Bundesbank
Banking and Its Role in the Economy

Government and Politics
The Constitution
The President
The Chancellor and the Cabinet
The Legislature
The Judiciary
The Civil Service
The Electoral System
Political Parties
Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union
Social Democratic Party
Free Democratic Party
The Greens
The Republikaner and the German People's Union
Party of Democratic Socialism
Political Developments since Unification


Cities in Germany: Berlin, Bonn, Cologne, Dresden, Dusseldorf, Flensburg, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Hanover, Heidelberg, Kiel, Leipzig, Lubeck, Munich, Nuremberg

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