Philippines Table of Contents

This edition supersedes the 1983 edition of Philippines: A Country Study, edited by Frederica M. Bunge. The authors wish to acknowledge their use and adaptation of information from that book in the preparation of this edition.

Various members of the staff of the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress assisted in the preparation of the book. Andrea M. Savada and Sandra W. Meditz made many helpful suggestions during their review of the book. Robert L. Worden also reviewed parts of the book and made numerous suggestions and points of clarification. Timothy Merrill reviewed the maps and geographical and telecommunications references in the book; David P. Cabitto prepared the artwork of the cover illustration and coordinated production of all maps and figures; Marilyn L. Majeska managed editing and production of the book; Andrea T. Merrill provided valuable assistance with tables and figures; Alberta J. King provided research and word processing assistance on parts of the book; and Barbara Edgerton and Izella Watson performed final word processing for the completed manuscript.

The editors owe a special debt of gratitude to the late Professor Charles W. Lindsey, who despite serious illness continued to provide valuable advice and assistance in the editing of his chapter on the Philippine economy.

Thanks also go to Ralph K. Benesch, who oversees the Country Studies--Area Handbook Program for the Department of the Army, and James Nach of the Department of State, who reviewed the text and also offered suggestions and points of clarification. In addition, the editor wishes to thank various members of the staff of the Embassy of the Philippines, Washington, especially Colonel Roberto P. Santiago and MacArthur Corsino.

Others who contributed to the publication of this book were Harriett R. Blood and the firm of Greenhorne and O'Mara, who assisted in the preparation of maps and charts; Catherine Schwartzstein, who performed the final prepublication review; Joan C. Cook, who prepared the index; Deanna D'Errico, who edited the individual chapters; and Linda Peterson of the Library of Congress Composing Unit, who prepared camera-ready copy under the direction of Peggy Pixley. Finally, the authors are especially grateful to individuals and organizations who donated photographs. They are acknowledged in the illustration captions.


This edition is a revision of the 1983 Philippines: A Country Study. The new edition recounts events in the Philippines since the ouster of President Ferdinand Marcos, the restoration of democracy, and the installation of President Corazon Aquino in February 1986.

Like its predecessor, this study is an effort to present an objective and concise account of the major social, economic, political, and national security concerns of the Philippines in the 1990s, using an historical framework. Sources of information include scholarly books, official reports from government and international organizations, and foreign and domestic newspapers and periodicals. Brief commentary on some of the more useful and readily accessible sources appears at the end of each chapter. Full references to these and other sources used by the authors are listed in the Bibliography.

The authors have limited the use of foreign and technical terms, which are defined when they first appear. The authors have used the place names established by the United States Board on Geographic Names. Pilipino personal and place names and terminology include the tilde. Names and terminology from the Spanish colonial period include accented vowels in addition to the tilde.

The body of the text reflects information available as of June 1991. Certain other portions of the text, however, have been updated.

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Source: U.S. Library of Congress