Portugal Table of Contents

This edition supersedes Portugal: A Country Study published in 1976. The authors wish to acknowledge their use of portions of that edition in the preparation of the current book.

Various members of the staff of the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress assisted in the preparation of the book. Sandra W. Meditz made helpful suggestions during her review of all parts of the book. Timothy L. Merrill assisted in the preparation of some of the maps, checked the content of all the maps, and reviewed the sections on geography and telecommunications. Thanks also go to David P. Cabitto, who provided graphics support; Wayne Horn, who designed the cover and chapter art; Marilyn L. Majeska, who managed editing and production and edited portions of the manuscript; Andrea T. Merrill, who provided invaluable assistance with regard to tables and figures; and Barbara Edgerton, Alberta Jones King, and Izella Watson, who performed word processing.

The authors also are grateful to individuals in various United States government agencies who gave their time and special knowledge to provide information and perspective. These individuals include Ralph K. Benesch, who oversees the Country Studies-Area/Handbook Program for the Department of the Army; and Scott B. MacDonald of the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, who offered advice in the preparation of sections of the manuscript. In addition, the authors wish to thank various members of the staff of the Embassy of the Republic of Portugal in Washington for their assistance.

Others who contributed were Harriett R. Blood and the firm of Greenhorne and O'Mara, who assisted in the preparation of maps and charts; Mimi Cantwell, who edited the chapters; Beverly Wolpert, who performed final prepublication editorial review; and Joan C. Cook, who prepared the index. The Library of Congress Composing Unit prepared camera-ready copy, under the direction of Peggy Pixley. The inclusion of photographs was made possible by the generosity of various individuals and public and private agencies.


Like its predecessor, this study attempts to review the history and treat in a concise and objective manner the dominant social, political, economic, and military aspects of Portugal. Sources of information included books, scholarly journals, foreign and domestic newspapers, official reports of government and international organizations, and numerous periodicals on Portuguese and international affairs.

Spellings of place-names used in the book are in most cases those approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names. Exceptions are the use of Lisbon rather than Lisboa, the Portguese form of the capital's name, and Azores rather than Ašores.

The body of the text reflects information available as of January 1993. Certain other portions of the text, however, have been updated. The Bibliography includes published sources thought to be particularly helpful to the reader.

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Source: U.S. Library of Congress