Austria

Eric Solsten, ed. Austria: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1994.

Acknowledgments
Preface

History
THE ALPINE-DANUBIAN REGION BEFORE THE HABSBURG DYNASTY
The Celtic and Roman Eras

The Early Medieval Era
The Holy Roman Empire and the Duchy of Austria
RISE OF THE HABSBURG EMPIRE
The Habsburg Dynasty in the Late Medieval Era

Territorial Expansion, Division, and Consolidation
The Protestant Reformation in the Habsburg Lands
The Turkish Threat
THE COUNTER-REFORMATION AND THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR
Division and Rebellion

The Thirty Years' War, 1618-48
The Peace of Westphalia
THE BAROQUE ERA
Political and Religious Consolidation under Leopold

The Turkish Wars and the Siege of Vienna
The War of the Spanish Succession

The Pragmatic Sanction and the War of the Austrian Succession, 1740-48
THE REFORMS OF MARIA THERESA AND JOSEPH II
Baroque Absolutism and Enlightened Despotism

The Strategic Impact of the Reform Era
THE HABSBURG EMPIRE AND THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
The Napoleonic Wars

The Congress of Vienna
AUSTRIA IN THE AGE OF METTERNICH
International Developments, 1815-48

Domestic Policies
THE REVOLUTION OF 1848 AND NEOABSOLUTISM
Revolutionary Rise and Fall

The Failure of Neoabsolutism
Loss of Leadership in Germany
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY TO THE EARLY 1900s
The Founding of the Dual Monarchy

Final Defeat in Germany and Reconciliation with Prussia
The Eastern Question
Internal Developments in Austria
THE FINAL YEARS OF THE EMPIRE AND WORLD WAR I
The Crisis over Bosnia and Hercegovina

World War I
The End of the Habsburg Empire and the Birth of the Austrian Republic
THE FIRST REPUBLIC
Overview of the Political Camps

The Foundation of the First Republic
Political Life of the 1920s and Early 1930s
The End of Constitutional Rule
Growing German Pressure on Austria
THE ANSCHLUSS AND WORLD WAR II
Absorption of Austria into the Third Reich

Nazi Economic and Social Policies
Repression and Compliance
World War II and the Defeat of Nazi Germany
RESTORED INDEPENDENCE UNDER ALLIED OCCUPATION
Foundation of the Second Republic

Four-Power Occupation and Recognition of the Provisional Government
The 1945 Election and Consolidation of the Austrian Government
Consolidation of Democracy
Austria's Integration with the West
The 1955 State Treaty and Austrian Neutrality
GRAND COALITION AND THE AUSTRIAN PEOPLE'S PARTY CODA, 1955-70
Foreign Policy in the Late 1950s and 1960s

Elections and Parties
Domestic Tranquillity under the Grand Coalition
THE KREISKY YEARS, 1970-83
Electoral Politics in the Kreisky Era

Domestic Issues
Foreign Policy
End of the Kreisky Era

The Society and Its Environment
GEOGRAPHY
Landform Regions
Human Geography
Climate
Ecological Concerns
AUSTRIAN NATIONAL IDENTITY
POPULATION
Demographic Development
Immigration
Emigration
SOCIAL MINORITIES
Official Minority Groups
Other Minorities
Gypsies

Jews
Foreign Workers
Attitudes Toward Minorities
SOCIAL STRUCTURE
FAMILY LIFE
Family Developments after the 1960s
Status of Women
RELIGION
EDUCATION
SOCIAL SECURITY
Employment, Unemployment, and Pension Benefits
Health and Health Insurance
Family Benefits
HOUSING

The Economy
ECONOMIC GROWTH AND GOVERNMENT POLICY
Historical Background

Developments During the 1970s and 1980s
The New Policies
The Magic Pentagon
The Subsidy Policy
Foreign Workers in Austria
PRINCIPAL ECONOMIC INTEREST GROUPS
SOCIAL PARTNERSHIP
STRUCTURE OF THE ECONOMY
The Agricultural Sector
The Government Role

The Structure of Agriculture
The Industrial Sector
Industry
Efforts to Improve Competitiveness
Mining and Minerals

Energy
The Services Sector
Retail Trade

Tourism
Money and Banking

Government and Politics
CONSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS
The Federal President
Chancellor and Cabinet
Nationalrat
Bundesrat
Bundesversammlung
Judicial System
The Constitutional Court
The Administrative Court
Ordinary Courts
Special Courts
The People's Attorney
Legal Training

Civil Service
Provincial Government
Local Government
Electoral System
POLITICAL DYNAMICS
The Social Democratic Party of Austria
The Austrian People's Party
The Freedom Party of Austria
The Green Parties
Political Developments since 1983
SP-FP Coalition, 1983-86

Election of Kurt Waldheim as President
The National Election of 1986 and the Grand Coalition of 1987-90
The Parliamentary Election of 1990
Events of 1991-93
MASS MEDIA
Newspapers and Periodicals
Radio and Television

FOREIGN RELATIONS
Foreign Policy During the Kreisky Era
New Focus on Europe
Regional Issues

Bibliography

Cities in Austria: Graz, Innsbruck, Salzburg, Vienna

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